068 PANDU 01 15 PDF

NEERUKONDA RAVI. RAMA RAO. T. SECOND .. MED. NAME: SECOND YEAR. THIRD YEAR. 01 — NAGANABOYINA PANDU RANGA. S. Pandurangam, D. Pandya, P. Pankratov, A. K. ,01 1 Pankratov, A. V. Pankratov, B Panov, K. 15 17 Papapetrou, . 28, MH/SAY01, KALU MAHADU MENGAL, CENTRAL . 63, MH/SAY01, TANHAJI PANDU PATHAVE, STATE BANK OF.

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The Pqndu Kingdom Sinhala: Founded by King Pandukabhaya in BC, the kingdom’s authority extended throughout the country, although several independent areas emerged from time to time, which grew more numerous towards the end of the kingdom.

Nonetheless, the king of Anuradhapura was seen as the supreme ruler of the country throughout the Anuradhapura period. Buddhism played a strong role in the Anuradhapura period, influencing its culture, laws, and methods of governance. Invasions from South India were a constant threat throughout the Anuradhapura period.

Rulers such as DutthagamaniValagambaand Dhatusena are noted for defeating the South Indians and regaining control of the kingdom. Other rulers who are notable for military achievements include Gajabahu Iwho launched an invasion against the invaders, and Sena IIwho sent his armies to assist a Pandyan prince. Because the kingdom was largely based on agriculture, the construction of irrigation works was a major achievement of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, ensuring water supply in the dry zone and ppandu the country grow mostly self-sufficient.

Several kings, most notably Vasabha and Mahasenabuilt large reservoirs and canals, which created a vast and complex irrigation network in the Rajarata area throughout the Anuradhapura period.

These constructions are an indication of the advanced technical and engineering skills used to create them. The famous paintings and structures at Sigiriya ; the RuwanwelisayaJetavana stupasand other large stupas ; large buildings like the Lovamahapaya ; and religious works like the numerous Buddha statues are landmarks paandu the Anuradhapura period’s advancement in sculpting.

He eventually brought the island under his control apndu established himself as king. After this, his retinue established villages and colonies throughout the country. One of these was established by Anuradha, a minister of King Vijaya, on the banks of a stream called Kolon and was named Anuradhagama. The name was also derived from the city’s establishment on the auspicious asterism called Anura. King Pandukabhaya, the founder and first ruler of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, fixed village boundaries in the country and established an administration system by appointing village headmen.

He constructed hermitages, houses for the poor, cemeteries, and irrigation tanks. However, pandh was not until the reign of Dutthagamani — BC that the whole country was unified under the Anuradhapura Kingdom. He regained his throne after defeating these invaders one by one and unified the country again under his rule.

During the final years of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, rebellions sprang up and the authority of the kings gradually declined. During the times of Vasabha, Mahasena — and Dhatusena, the construction of large irrigation tanks and canals was given priority. Vasabha constructed 11 tanks and 12 canals, [21] Mahasen constructed 16 tanks and a large canal, [22] and Dhatusena built 18 tanks. By the end of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, a large and intricate irrigation network was available throughout Rajarata to support the agriculture pabdu the country.

One of the most notable events during the Anuradhapura Kingdom was the introduction of Buddhism to the country. After this meeting, Devanampiya Tissa embraced Buddhism and the order of monks was established in the country. Soon afterwards, the bhikkhuni Sanghamitta arrived from India in order to establish the Bhikkhuni sasana order of nuns in the country. During the reign of Kithsirimevan —Sudatta, the sub king of Kalingaand Hemamala brought the Tooth Relic of the Buddha to Sri Lanka because pzndu unrest in their country.

The Tooth Relic of the Buddha soon became one of the most sacred objects in the country, and a symbol of kingship. The person who was in possession of the Tooth Relic would be the rightful ruler of the country. Several invasions have been made against the Anuradhapura Kingdom, all of which were launched from South India. The first invasion recorded in the history of the country is during the reign of Suratissa — BCwhere he was overthrown by two horse dealers from South India named Sena and Guththika.

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After ruling the country for 22 years, they were defeated by Asela — BCwho was in turn overthrown by another invasion led by a Chola prince named Ellalan — BC. Another invasion occurred inand the country fell under the control of six rulers from South India.

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However, none of these invaders could extend their rule to Ruhunathe southern part of the country, and Sri Lankan rulers and their heirs always organized their armies from this area and managed to regain their throne.

Throughout the history of Sri Lanka, Ruhuna served as a base for resistance movements. It further mentions that his army rose against him due to lack of wages. Mahinda V was captured and taken to India, and the Cholas sacked the city of Anuradhapura. The kingdom was under the rule of a king.

The consecration ceremonies and rituals associated with kingship began during the reign of Devanampiya Tissa, [43] under the influence of Ashoka of India. Before this, it had several principalities independent of the Anuradhapura Kingdom. Four dynasties have ruled the kingdom from its founding to its ending. The rulers from Vijaya to Subharaja 60—67 are generally considered as the Vijayan dynasty. His ascension to the throne saw the start of the first Lambakanna dynasty, which ruled the country for more than three centuries.

Named the Moriya dynasty, the origins of this line are uncertain although some historians trace them to Shakya princes who accompanied the sapling of the Sri Maha Bodhi to Sri Lanka.

Royal officials were divided into three categories; officials attached to the palace, officials of central administration and officials of provincial administration. One of the most important positions was the purohitathe advisor of the king. The kingdom was often divided into sections or provinces and governed separately. Rajaratathe area around the capital, was under the direct administration of the king, while the Ruhuna southern part of the country and the Malaya Rata hill country were governed by officials called apa and mapa.

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These administrative units were further divided into smaller units called rata. Officials called ratiya or ratika were in charge of these.

A close link existed between the ruler and the Sangha Buddhist priesthood since the introduction of Buddhism to the country. This relationship was further strengthened during Dutthagamani’s reign. The monks often advised and even guided the king on decisions.

This association was initially with the Mahavihara sect, but by 608 middle of the 1st century BC, the Abhayagiri sect had also begun to have a close link to the ruling of the country.

By the end of the 3rd century AD, the Jetavana sect had also become close to the ruler. Customs, traditions and moral principles based on Buddhism were used as the bases 011 law.

Anuradhapura Kingdom

Specific laws were eventually developed and adopted. Samantapasadikaa 5th-century commentary, gives details of complex regulations on the theft of fish. The chief judicial officer was known as viniccayamacca and there were several judicial officers under him, known as vinicchayaka.

Apart from them, village headmen and provincial governors were also given the power to issue judgments. The king was the final judge in legal disputes, and all cases against members of the royal family and high dignitaries of the state were judged by him.

However, the king had to exercise this power with care and after consulting with his advisers. Initially, the administration of justice at village level was the responsibility of village assemblies, which usually consisted of the elders of the village. The laws and legal measures to be followed by them were proclaimed by the king. Several rock inscriptions that record these proclamations have been found in archaeological excavations. Punishments differed from ruler to ruler.

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Some kings, such as Sanghabodhi — and Voharika Tissa — were lenient in this aspect, while rulers like Ilanaga 33—43 and Jetthatissa I — were harsher. However, crimes such as treason, murder and slaughter of cattle were generally punishable by death. The economy of the Anuradhapura Kingdom was based mainly on agriculture. Rice cultivation began around the Malvatu oyaDeduru oya and Mahaweli river and panxu throughout the country.

Due to the extensive production of rice, the country was mostly self-sufficient. Sugarcane and Sesame were also grown and there are frequent references in classical literature ppandu these agricultural products. Finger millet was grown as a substitute for rice, particularly in the dry zone of the country. The primary goods exported during the Anuradhapura period are gemstonesspicespearls and elephantswhile ceramic waresilksperfumes and wines were imported from other countries.

Currency was often used for settling judicial fines, taxes and payments for goods [N 5] or services. The oldest coins found at Anuradhapura date up to BC. These eventually became circular in paneu, which were in turn followed by die struck coins.

The primary tax of this period was named bojakapati grain tax and charged for land used for cultivation. The administration of taxes was the duty of Badagarikathe king’s treasurer. Culture in the Anuradhapura Kingdom was largely based on Buddhism with the slaughter of animals for food considered low and unclean. As a result, animal husbandry, except for the rearing of buffalo and cattle, was uncommon. Elephants and horses were prestige symbols, and could only be afforded by the nobility.

The skills needed to train and care for these animals were highly regarded. Metalwork was an important and well-developed craft, and metal tools such as axes, mammoties and hoes were widely used. Weapons and tools of iron and steel were produced in large scale for the military.

Villages were usually concentrated around irrigation reservoirs to enable easy access to water for agriculture. Houses stood immediately below the reservoir embankment, between the water and the paddy fields below.

This facilitated easy control of the water supply to the fields and also supported maintenance of domestic gardens for fruit and vegetable production. In areas of high rainfall, a perennial watercourse often took the place of the reservoir.

Women appear to have been allowed considerable freedom and independence during this period. However, there are no records of women holding any administrative posts. It is not clear if women were given equal footing with men, but they did have complete freedom in religious matters. After the introduction of Buddhism to Sri Lanka during the reign of Devanampiya Tissa, it spread throughout pxndu country under his patronage.

Mahavihara was established immediately after the introduction of Buddhism to the country. Representing the Theravada teachings, it remained strictly conventional throughout the Anuradhapura Kingdom. The Abhayagiri fraternity, established after Abhayagiriya was built, represented several schools of Buddhist thought.

It did not restrict itself to Theravada and accepted Mahayana and Tantric ideas as well. Little evidence exists on the Jetavana fraternity which was established after the Jetavanaramaya was built, later than the other two. However, it too was receptive to padu and more liberal views panru Buddhism.