CANDIDAL BALANITIS. DEFINITION. Balanitis refers to inflammation of the glans . The most common cause of balanitis is Candida albicans. In common usage, “balanitis” and “balanoposthitis” are interchangeable, although balanoposthitis occurs only in uncircumcised males. For the. Zoon balanitis (ZB) is one of the benign nonvenereal dermatoses, which presents as a solitary, persistent erythematous plaque usually on the glans penis.

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Fusidic acid shares a similar molecular structure with corticosteroid, thus having both anti-inflammatory and antibiotic activity. Promotion of good hygiene is an easy and potentially beneficial measure.

It is less common among people who are circumcised as in many cases the foreskin contributes to the disease. Diagnosis and management of premalignant penile lesions. Oral dapsone has also been used in resistant lesions of ZB.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

Diseases of the skin; pp. Balanopostitls clinical differentiation between ZB and its clinically equivocal dermatosis may be sometimes challenging. Gerbig AW, Hunziker T. YAG laser produces relatively pure ablation with minimal thermal damage. It is most commonly located on the glans penis, but inner surface of prepuce and coronal sulcus may be involved.

Changes in dermal vasculature which include vascular dilatation with proliferated individual vessels. Patients should be instructed to retract the foreskin regularly and perform gentle cleansing of entire glans, preputial sac, and foreskin. Although it is described as benign in nature, its association with premalignant conditions such as erythroplasia of Queyrat really puts the clinician in a great dilemma.


Balanopostitus is the definite treatment of ZB according to the European guidelines for the management of balanoposthitis. However, long-term controlled studies are needed to confirm its effect and to know the dose and duration of therapy for complete clearance in ZB [ Table 2 ].

According to a study by Petersen et al. For erythroplasia of Queyrat, a balxnopostitis of 5 years follow-up is recommended. However, further studies are required to substantiate these findings.

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The clinical criteria given by Kumar et al. Financial support and sponsorship Nil.

Other sites are oral mucosa gingiva, hard palate, buccal mucosaconjunctiva, urethra, cheeks, and epiglottis. There is only one case report of ZB treated with oral dapsone without any side effect although the mechanism of action was not clear. Shiny, erythematous patches on the glans, prepuce, or both. Arch Candiidiasica Exp Dermatol.

Torchia D, Cappugi P.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

The exact mechanism of action of TCIs in these conditions is not known. YAG laser – Few studies have reported Er: Views Read Edit View history. Thus, CO 2 laser can be used as a viable alternative and certainly less traumatic surgical therapy for treatment of ZB than circumcision.


This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Additional features such as subepidermal clefts, necrotic keratinocytes, and lozenge keratinocytes i. A dog with this condition behaves normally, with the exception of excessive licking at the prepuce, and a yellow green, pus -like discharge is usually present.

Erythroplasia of the female genitalia. ZB is not so balanopostitks clinical entity, but very less attention has been paid in the literature regarding its etiology and management of this peculiar nonvenereal genital dermatosis.

Response to Trimovate cream. Case report and literature review. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of plasma cell balanitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol.

Case series and review of the literature. Histologically, benign conditions such as pemphigus vulgaris, flexural psoriasis, lichen planus, and Reiter’s disease may show features in common with ZB but lack the typical changes in the epidermis and dermal blood vessels. Mahajan BB, Mehta V. Dermoscopy of Zoon’s plasma cell balanitis. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Hepatitis Ascending cholangitis Cholecystitis Pancreatitis Peritonitis.

Furthermore, pimecrolimus leads to inhibition of histamine release by mast cells, which may result balanpoostitis improvement of the symptoms. Plasma cell balanitis and vulvitis of Zoon.