This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.

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The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara

It is, however, legitimate to suppose that sound is produced by the concussion, and that one sound produces another sound and so on until the last sound is heard at a great distance.

But it is established by inference like the lower half of the earth or the other side of the moon. Discutient — The scripture which is a verbal testimony declares the existence of soul.

Sound does gautamaa continue to exist and its cause of cessation is also perceived.

Occasions for rebuke finfwnr But if the original materials are different their modifications are ex- pected to be different. It does not conflict with the view that Aksapada is identical with Gautama author of the Gautama Dharma-Sutra which is ” declared to be the oldest of the existing works on the sacred lawj, 1 ‘ Aksapada-Gautama, founder of the Nyaya Philosophy, was almost a contemporary of Buddha-Gautama who founded Buddhism and Indra- bhfiti Gautama who was a disciple of Alalia vira the reputed founder of Jainism.

Hence there is, according to the objectors, no soul beyond the eye. However, the Nyayasutras and early Nyaya scholars rejected this hypothesis, and were non-theistic or atheists.

Full text of “The Nyaya Sutras of Gotama”

The verbal testi- mony is, therefore, supposed by Borne to be inference, as the object revealed by both is unperceived. Aryadeva and Nagarjuna Adi Shankara.


Other historical Indian commentaries and works inspired by Nyayasutras and which have survived into the modern era, include Nyaya-varttika by 6th-century Uddyotakara, Nyaya-bhasyatika by 6th-century Bhavivikta, another Nyaya-bhasyatika by 7th-century Aviddhakarna, Nyaya-bhusana by 9th-century Bhasarvajana, Nyaya-manjari by 9th-century Kashmir scholar Jayanta Bhatta, Nyaya-prakirnaka by 10th-century Karnata scholar Trilocana, and Nyaya-kandali by 10th-century Bengal scholar Sridhara.

Rhetoric alafikaraVedanta, etc. Ancient Indian philosophical literature Epistemology literature Hindu texts History of logic Logic literature Metaphysics literature Nyaya Sutra literature. If an object of right knowledge, continues the objector, is to be established by a means of right knowledge, this latter needs also to be established by another means of right knowledge.

It is admitted that a person while listening to a song may not see colour though it comes in contact with his eye. In order to achieve liberation and to know the soul, one must take shelter of yoga practices, because without this knowledge, knowledge of Reality is not obtained.

Similarly, verbal testi- mony enables It is contended that the eye-ball is not a material substance because it can apprehend the great and dutra small. This proves that sound does not abide with other qualities in a tangible substance. Our body is earthy because it possesses the special qualities of earth.

Is the soul eternal or non-eternal? It is, some say, not so because remembrance is lodged in the object remembered.

stura If the means of right knowledge is accepted as self-established, the object of right knowledge must also, according to the objector, be accepted as self-established. A noun ends in a sup affix, e. Looking at ‘dadhi-utra’ and ‘ dutra ‘ we notice that there is i in the former and y in the latter. Discusses epistemology, when perception, inference and comparison is unreliable and reliable. The allied Jain and sutrz the system as a whole.

In a kitchen there are of course both smoke and fire, but in a red-hot iron-ball there is no smoke. Never- theless the principles of Nyiiya entering into the different systems of philosophy gave them each its proper compactness and cogency just as Bacon’s Inductive Method shaped the sciences and philosophies of a later age in a different country.


Some lay down five more members as follows: But if you pretend to presume that ” if there is a cloud there will be rain” your so-called presumption will be an invalid one.

The screaming of a peacock which suggests gathering clouds is quite different from a man’s imitation of it, for the latter is not natural.

There is no natural connection between a word and the object signified by it, as we do not find that the words food, fire ntaya hatchet, are accompanied by the ac- tions filling, burning surra splitting.

For instance, a thing which is screened from us by a wall is not perceived by our eyes. Our reason is that in respect of letters there is no fixity as to their modification. An injunction is that which exhorts us to adopt a certain course of action [as the means of attaining good], — Sound is cognised in that manner i. A new-born child manifests marks of joy, fear and grief. Others again say that sound arises from the concussion of elements, requires no abode, and is subject to production and destruction.

The illustration from an army or a forest does not hold good, for atoms cannot be detected by the senses. If a person begins to argue in a way which betrays his utter ignorance, or wilfully misunderstands and yet persists in showing that he understands well, it is of no avail to employ counter arguments. Presents its theory of defects, then its theory that “everything has cause, and consequences”, and its “some things are eternal, some non-eternal” theory.

So in res- pect of letters there is no fixity as to the original materials of their modi- fication.