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The antioxidant properties of calafate Berberis microphylla fruits from four different locations in southern Chile. Propiedades antioxidantes de frutos de calafate Berberis microphylla evaluadas en cuatro diferentes localidades del sur de Chile. The results showed that TP varied significantly according to the location. The measured AC level depended on the methodology used, varying significantly between locations according to the DPPH results. The TA showed significant differences among locations and was highest for El Blanco 0.

The phenolic acid compounds that were identified included gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid and flavonoids such as rutin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. These compounds varied according to location. The chemical composition of the fruits also varies with the origin of the samples.

Antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, Berberis, flavonoids, phenolic acids, total phenols.

Las AT mostraron diferencias significativas entre localidades, siendo El Blanco el mayor 0,64 mg de cianidina g -1 fruta seca. Estos compuestos variaron de acuerdo a la localidad: Chile is recognized as a fruit exporter. Its fruit exports are principally based on introduced species such as grapes, apples, raspberries and blueberries. Likewise, Chile is considered the largest exporter of blueberries worldwide and the second largest exporter of raspberries in the Southern Hemisphere.

However, few species of berries are adapted to grow in the soil and climatic conditions of Chile. Because of this difficulty, efforts have been made to introduce new plant varieties optimally adapted to enhance berry quality and production. Nevertheless, Chilean native species have been investigated as a diversification alternative, including murta Ugni molinae Turcz. Another species, less often investigated in terms of genetic variability, crop feasibility and the benefits resulting from its use, is the calafate Berberis microphylla G.

Calafate belongs to the family Berberidaceae; it is a shrub whose fruit is an edible bluish-black berry. Currently, there are few scientific publications that address the chemical characteristics of the fruit.

However, Ruiz et al. Thus, the calafate can potentially be produced in a great variety of areas, but no previous studies have related the antioxidant capacity of the fruits to the location of the crop. The chemical characteristics of calafate fruits and other native fruits may vary depending on weather conditions and plant location, and this variation affects the antioxidant capacity of the fruits Ruiz et al. In this context, we hypothesize that the antioxidant properties of calafate fruits vary geographically.

The main objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant capacity and the content of phenolic compounds of calafate fruits from different geographical areas in southern Chile. The plant material consisted of wild calafate fruit collected between December and February from four locations in Chile.

The moisture content of the fruit was then determined by drying to constant weight according to AOAC The samples were cooled and weighed, and the percentage of moisture was calculated from the difference in weight according to the following equation: The extracts for the analysis of total phenols TPtotal anthocyanins TA and antioxidant capacity AC were prepared as follows: For the HPLC analysis, samples of fresh fruit were weighed and then macerated with a mortar.


The mixture was then centrifuged at 13, rpm for 5 min. For the analyses, a dilution of each sample was added to each test tube: The samples were analyzed in duplicate. Gallic acid concentration versus absorbance was plotted. The content of phenolic compounds was expressed as gallic acid equivalents according to the following equation: Antioxidant capacity by DPPH method. To determine the free radical scavenging, the stable radical 2.

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To analyze the samples, the following was prepared for each dilution and added to each test tube: The sample was stirred and allowed to stand for 30 min in darkness.

The measurements were made in duplicate, and absorbance was measured in a spectrophotometer at nm. The curve was constructed with the Trolox standard. From this curve, the antiradical activity of the samples was calculated in terms of mg of Trolox equivalent per g of dry sample.

The previous equation was used to calculate this parameter by changing the standard and the slope. Antioxidant capacity by the method oflinoleic acid oxidation inhibition. The activities obtained were compared to Trolox as the standard.

The following reagents were prepared: Two solutions were required to prepare this buffer: The two solutions were used to obtain the working solution. To obtain a 10 mM solution, 25 mL of working solution was taken and diluted to the required total volume with deionized water in a mL flask. A total of 2. A total of 0. The solution was then diluted 10 times.

The antioxidant activity relative to the formation of conjugated dienes expressed in mg of equivalent Trolox g -1 dry sample is given by the following equation: Determination of total anthocyanins. Total anthocyanins TA were measured by the pH-differential method described by Cheng and Breen based on the difference between measurements at pH 1. The absorbance of the different samples for each pH value was measured in a spectrophotometer at and nm and the result calculated as follows: The data were obtained with the extinction coefficient for cyanidin-3 glucoside 29, and expressed as mg g -1 cyanidin dry weight DW.

The HPLC analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids was performed as described by Ruhland and Day with modifications and at a flow rate of 1. The phenolic acids – chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and p-coumaric and the flavonoids quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and rutin – were used as standards Sigma Chemical Co.

These standards were dissolved in methanol for the preparation of calibration curves. The signals were detected at nm. The data obtained were analyzed based on a randomized design. For the analysis of total phenols, antioxidant capacity DPPHantioxidant linoleic acid and anthocyanins, two replicates were considered.

kaempferol propiedades pdf file

To evaluate and determine phenolic compounds, four replicates were considered. To correlate the antioxidant capacity obtained by the DPPH method as well as by the method of linoleic acid, total anthocyanins, total phenols and percentage of soluble solids, a step-by-step correlation analysis was used.

JMP software version 8 was used for the analysis. The total phenol TP values ranged from This variation could reflect the influence of each location. Studies have shown that the synthesis of phenols is favored by stress conditions in adverse climates Kong et al,as in the case kempferol Patagonia. Studies of blueberry and strawberry have reported strong variations in the total phenolic content harvested in different locations and have attributed this variation to the influence of the growth region Hakkinen et al.


The AC was determined with two methods, and these methods yielded different results. These kaempfdrol indicated that the method used strongly influenced the results. The DPPH method showed statistically significant differences between locations, ranging from 3.

It is possible to infer that commercial farms could produce this nutritionally high-quality fruit in an extensive area of southern Chile Table 1. The TA values showed statistically significant differences between locations.

Fruits from El Blanco showed the highest value, approximately 0. Similar results were obtained by Ruiz et al. The literature indicates that this response could be due to factors such as radiation. The functions of the phenolic compounds may include radiation protection.

Specifically, TA could protect against light stress. It ppropiedades been proposed that the TA act as screens and prevent genetic damage in plant cells O’Neill and Gould, Another factor may be temperature: Guerrero showed popiedades the AC, TA and TP content of blueberries was karmpferol higher in fruit from Collipulli than in fruit obtained from locations further south IX and X Propiedadrs of Chile and suggested that this difference could be due to the climatic conditions of the location, such as high pre-harvest temperatures that would cause a greater growth rate and greater color development in blueberries, resulting in a significant content of antioxidants.

Another kaempferpl determinant of TA content is the stage of ripeness at harvest.

In particular, the total phenolic content decreases when the fruit reaches maturity, whereas the TA content increases substantially Kalt et al. TA was found to match the highest content of soluble solids.

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This result suggests greater fruit ripeness, but this trend did not occur at other locations. The TA content usually accumulates during maturity and depends on the temperature and location where the fruits are planted. We identified the flavonoids rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and the following phenolic acids: Similar results were found by Ruiz et al. Furthermore, the authors noted that the flavonoid content 0. These data suggest that the nutritional quality of calafate is equivalent to that of maqui.

In the Portal Antioxidantes database www. These values indicate that the antioxidant properties of calafate are excellent. An additional result is that the composition of the calafate varied depending on the place of origin. El Blanco showed high caffeic acid, myricetin, kaempferol and quercetin content; Temuco showed high coumaric acid and rutin and quercetin content; and Lonquimay showed high chlorogenic, caffeic and coumaric acid content.

These results raise an important issue, as indicated by Pineda et al. This information makes it possible to infer that there may be synergism or antagonism among the compounds in calafate because the samples evaluated showed statistically significant differences in terms of antioxidant capacity Table 2.

Identification of flavonoids and phenolic acids in fruit extracts of calafate.